Gut microbiota, which acts collectively as a fully-integrated organ in the host metabolism, can be shaped by long-term dietary interventions following a specific diet.
To study the changes in microbiota after one year’s consumption of a Mediterranean diet (Med diet) or a low-fat, high-complex carbohydrates diet (LFHCC diet) in an obese population.
Participant swere randomized to receive Med diet (35% fat, 22% monounsaturated) and LFHCC diet (28% fat, 12% monounsaturated).
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
The study was conducted in 20 obese patients (men) within the CORDIOPREV study, an ongoing prospective, randomized, opened, controlled trial in patients with coronary heart disease.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE
We evaluated the bacterial composition and its relationship with the whole fecal and plasma metabolome.
The LFHCC diet increased Prevotella and decreased the Roseburia genera while the Med diet decreased Prevotella and increased the Roseburia and Oscillospira genera (P=0.028, 0.002, and 0.016, respectively). The abundance of Parabacteroides distasonis (P=0.025) and Faecalibactrium prausnitzii (P=0.020) increased after the long-term consumption of the Med diet and LFHCC diet, respectively. The changes in the abundance of 7 out of 572 metabolites found in feces, including mainly aminoacids, peptides and the sphingolipid metabolism, could be linked to the changes in the gut microbiota.
Our results suggest that a long-term consumption of the Med and LFHCC diets, exert a protective effect on the development of type 2 diabetes by different specific changes in the gut microbiota, increasing the abundance of the Roseburia genus and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, respectively.